Quantum: Describes a system of particles in terms of a wave function defined over the configuration of particles having distinct locations is implicit in the potential energy function that determines the wave function, the observable dynamics of the motion of such particles from point to point. In describing the energies, distributions and behaviours of electrons in nanometer-scale structures, quantum mechanical methods are necessary. Electron wave functions help determine the potential energy surface of a molecular system, which in turn is the basis for classical descriptions of molecular motion. Nanomechanical systems can almost always be described in terms of classical mechanics, with occasional quantum mechanical corrections applied within the framework of a classical model. [NTN]
Quantum Computer: A computer that takes advantage of quantum mechanical properties such as superposition and entanglement resulting from nanoscale, molecular, atomic and subatomic components. Quantum computers may revolutionise the computer industry in the not too distant future. [NTN]
Quantum Confined Atoms (QCA): atoms caged inside nanocrystals. May find uses in clear-glass sunglasses, bio-sensors, and optical computing.
Quantum Cryptography: A system based on quantum- mechanical principles. Eavesdroppers alter the quantum state of the system and so are detected. Developed by Brassard and Bennett, only small laboratory demonstrations have been made. [AS]
Quantum Dots: nanometer-sized semiconductor crystals, or electrostatically confined electrons. Something (usually a semiconductor island) capable of confining a single electron, or a few, and in which the electrons occupy discrete energy states just as they would in an atom (quantum dots have been called "artificial atoms"). [CMP] Other terminology reflects the preoccupations of different branches of research: microelectronics folks may refer to a "single-electron transistor" or "controlled potential barrier," whereas quantum physicists may speak of a "Coulomb island" or "zero-dimensional gas" and chemists may speak of a "colloidal nanoparticle" or "semiconductor nanocrystal." All of these terms are, at various times, used interchangeably with "quantum dot," and they refer more or less to the same thing: a trap that confines electrons in all three dimensions. [from Hacking Matter: Levitating Chairs, Quantum Mirages, and the Infinite Weirdness of Programmable Atoms. Wil McCarthy. February 2003]
Quantum Dot Nanocrystals (QDNs): used to tag biological molecules, and "measuring between five and ten nanometres across, are made up of three components. Their cores contain paired clusters of atoms such as cadmium and selenium that combine to create a semiconductor. This releases light of a specific colour when stimulated by ultraviolet of a wide range of frequencies. These clusters are surrounded by a shell made of an inorganic substance, to protect them. The whole thing is then coated with an organic surface, to allow the attachment of proteins or DNA molecules. By varying the number of atoms in the core, QDNs can be made to emit light of different colours." [From The Economist print edition]
Quantum Mechanics: A largely computational physical theory explaining the behavior of quantum phenomena, which incorporates the theory of special relativity. Despite dilignet attempts, general relativity has not been successfully incorporated into quantum mechanics. [NTN]
Quantum Mirage: A nanoscale property that may allow information to be transfered through use of the wave property of electrons. Thus, quantum computers might not require wires as we know them. [NTN]
Quantum Well: A P-N-P junction in which the "N" layer is ~10 nm (where traditional physics leaves off and quantum effects take over) and an "electron trap" is created. "If one makes a heterostructure with sufficiently thin layers, quantum interference effects begin to appear prominently in the motion of the electrons. The simplest structure in which these may be observed is a quantum well, which simply consists of a thin layer of a narrower-gap semiconductor between thicker layers of a wider-gap material." See Center for Quantum Electronics U of Dallas
Quantum Wire: Another form of quantum dot, but unlike the single-dimension "dot," a quantum wire is confined only in two dimensions - that is it has "length," and allows the electrons to propagate in a "particle-like" fashion. Constructed typically on a semiconductor base, and (among other things) used to produce very intense laser beams, switchable up to multi-gigahertz per second.